Polimery 1998, No 7-8, 407
Syntheses and applications of cyclic carbonates and spiro-orthocarbonates are reviewed with particular reference to the ring-size effect exercised by either carbonate type on the mechanisms of polymerization and copolymerization carried out with various heterocyclic monomers. Prospective application areas of the polycarbonates and their copolymers thus obtained are discussed. Aliphatic polycarbonates are used as polyol ingredients for segmented polyurethanes to make hydrolysis-resistant urethane elastomers as well as oxidation-resistant and biocompatible medical utensils (e.g., BIONATE). Some aliphatic copolycarbonates (e.g., with (R)-pl-butyrolactone) are biodegradable; polycarbonates and copolymers containing polycarbonate blocks are liable to ring-closing depolymerization, which thus renders thermodynamic recycling feasible. Modification of epoxy resins with cyclic carbonate-terminated oligomers, involving polyamines and Lewis acids (especially BF3 * OEt2) as curing agents, has led to compositions endowed with enhanced impact resistance.
Keywords: cyclic carbonates, polycarbonates, spiro-orthocarbonates, ringopening polymerization