Flame retardant polyamides — development, types and applications - (in English)
The inherent degree of flame retardancy of polyamides is inadequate for new applications, particularly in the electrical industry. The development of flame retardant polyamides, the flame retardants used and some applications which require flame retardant materials have been described. The three basic types of flame retardants used for polyamides are halogenated organic compounds, red phosphorus and melamine derivatives. Halogen-based additives have to be used at high concentrations and in conjunction with a metal oxide synergist. Their addition has an adverse effect on the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of polyamides. There is no problem with additive migration. A full range of colours can be achieved. Red phosphorus is effective at low concentrations and hence only slightly reduces mechanical and electrical properties. Red phosphorus can produce highly toxic phosphine at high temperatures in the presence of water. Products are restricted to red-brown and black. Melamine derivatives at intermediate levels produce good flame retardancy in unreinforced but not in fibre-reinforced polyamides. While melamine itself gives migration problems, its salts do not. Most colours are possible. Flame retardant polyamides are primarily used in electrical components for the automotive, aerospace and telecommunications.
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