Formation of polymer membranes for ultrafiltration
The actual state of art knowledge concerning the types, methods of preparation and mechanism of formation of polymer membranes used in the ultrafiltration process have been presented. These membranes are prepared in a majoraty of cases by the wet method of phase inversion comprising gelation of polimer from a film-forming solution in a polymer — solvent — nonsolvent system. This method serves for the preparation of both symmetrical and asymmetrical membranes, depending on the course of the polymer gelation process. Symmetrical membran es are characterized mostly by a spongy structure, whereas asymmetrical membran es can contain also macropores (voids) of various shape. The effect of the type of used polymer — solvent and solvent — nonsolvent system as well as of the polymer concentration in the film-forming solution on the type of structure of membrane formed from this solution has been characterized.
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