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A.K. Błędzki, W. Nowaczek


Identification of plastics in wastes and methods of their recycling


Polimery 1993, No 11, 511


DOI: dx.doi.org/10.14314/polimery.1993.511

Summary

An extensive rcview of the techniques used in the separation of plastics wastcs in devclopcd countrics (e.g. in Gcrmany and the USA) as well as of the currcnt research and dcvclopmcnt work on new methods of identification and utilization of plastics from wastcs was prescntcd. For identification of plastics thc following mcthods arc applicd: optical mcthods (read-out of codcs), thcrmo-optical mcthods (basing on diffcrcnccs in diclectric constants of plastics aftcr dielcctric hcating), X-ray fluorcscence spcctroscopy, near-IR spectrascapy in the rangc from 700 to 2 500 nm (basing on characteristic bands of -CH, -OH, -NH and -CO groups) and mass spectrametry of gaseous dccomposition products. Separalian of plastics can be carried out on the basis of density differcnccs (flotation, hydrocyclonc, air classification, classifying ccntrifugc), by the clcctrostatic mcthod or by thc sclective dissolution. Thc choice of scparation method should dcpcnd not only on thc types of polymers conccrncd and on the dcmandcd quality of rccyclate, but also on the ccobalance analysis results pcrmitting achicvcmcnt of a rational compromisc bctwecn the financial expcnditurcs and thc cconomic and ccological profits.


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