Progress in controlled/living polymerization in aqueous media.
Part I. Principles and methods
Polimery 2001, No 7-8, 454
SummaryA review with 113 referenees covering fundamentals, principal phenomena, general features and experimental criteria for CLP, viz., (i) fullfilment of the first-order reaction kinetics (i.e., ln(monomer concentration), or In([M]0/[M]), is a linear function of time; no termination; constant concentration of active centers); (ii) number-average M is a linear function of the degree of monomer conversion; (iii) narrow MWD; (iv) long lifetime of polymer chains able to propagate (owing to absence of chain transfer and termination). CLP methods are presented, viz., anionic polymerization including group transfer polymerization (GTP), cationic polymerization, which is much more difficult to carry out; ring opening metathesis polymerization; coordination polymerization; radical polymerization (involving stable free radicals (SFRP); atom transfer (ATRP); and utilizing the degenerative chain transfer reaction with chain transfer agent used in exeess over radical initiator).