Temperature stability and thermal properties of polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams obtained using products
of citric acid condensation
Polimery 2018, No 7-8, 503
Three products were obtained from the condensation of citric acid with: propane-1,2-diol with the catalyst Tyzor TPT (HDCA1), propane-1,2-diol without a catalyst (HDCA2) and propane-1,3-diol with the catalyst Tyzor TPT (HDCA3). We measured the viscosities (from 3972 mPa · s for HDCA1 to 27 986 mPa · s for HDCA3), densities (about 1200 g/cm3), hydroxyl values (280–427 mg KOH/g), and acid values (23–52 mg KOH/g) of the HDCAs. The thermal resistance of the HDCAs were assessed under dynamic conditions. The temperature ranges of 5, 10, 20 and 50 % weight loss for HDCA polyols were, respectively: 174–194 °C, 230–234 °C, 263–303 °C, and 314–364 °C. The HDCAs were used in the further synthesis of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR) and their physical qualities assessed with reference to foams produced from an industrial standard (Rokopol RF551). The authors examined the thermal properties (thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry) of the foams, as well as the thermal stability: dimensional, volume and mass. The number of foam degradation stages was determined, as well as the speed of degradation of specific chemical bonds and percentage mass loss during all stages. We determined the temperature of the foam’s first weight loss, the extrapolating temperature of the foam’s weight loss, the temperature of the start of the foam’s rapid decomposition, and the temperature of the foam’s highest speed of weight loss, the temperatures of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 50 % mass loss were measured (respectively: 208–223 °C, 230–260 °C, 280–300 °C, 345–366 °C). The enthalpy related to each individual stage of foam degradation was examined using DSC (three endotherms and one exothermic peak).