The effect of various physical factors on the formation of molecular orientation and residual stress, thus on properties deciding about the useful characteristics of mouldings from any material, was discussed. The phenomenon of birefringence caused by orientation anisotropy and residual stress was analyzed. Adequate assumptions were adopted for experimental studies on the evaluation of birefringence of polystyrene mouldings. In the case of this polymer, birefringence is caused only by the orientation of macromolecules. The effect of the injection moulding parameters of polystyrene mouldings on this orientation was investigated. The following results were obtained: no anisotropy of orientation in the vicinity of necking is observed for high temperature of the injection moulded polystyrene (no birefringence effect); a deciding effect of the injection moulding temperature on the orientation of macromolecules; and a small effect of pressure on this property.
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