Effects of zone heating on pet fibers structures and dynamics of melt spinning process.
Part II. Mathematical model
Polimery 2007, No 9, 686
Dynamic characteristics of PET fibers melt spinning with online zone heating was studied by computer simulation using mathematical model of the process of stationary spinning of a single filament from polymer melt, with stress-induced crystallization. The system of four differential equations (first-order ones) of the model were solved applying Runge - Kutta method using standard numerical procedures (see Eqs. 1-4). The axial local velocity profiles [V(z)], velocity gradient (dV/dz), temperature [T(z)], tensile stress [Δp(z)] and crystallinity degree [X(z)] of molten polymer were calculated for the processes with the same heating zone temperature ranges, take-up velocities, fixed fibers' diameters and limited viscosity number values as in case of PET fibers described in Part I  (Table 1, Fig. 5-14). Model calculations predict an occurring of maximum take-up velocity resulting from strong increase in polymer viscosity due to fast oriented crystallization at higher take-up velocities. The maximum velocity and, connected with it, the range of take-up velocity not available for the process depend on the heating zone temperature (TK). Calculated axial velocity profiles strongly change because of zone heating and the range of melt stretching with the maximum velocity gradient undergoes considerable shift from the spinneret to the heating zone. It results in considerable decrease in the fiber take-up stress, predicted by model, due to shortening of the filament section moving with the final take-up velocity. On the basis of calculations we conclude that the introduction of zone heating of temperature higher 30-40°C than glass transition temperature (Tg) leads to online crystallization of the melt at lower take-up velocities, similar to crystallization at high-speed spinning without heating zone. The decrease in take-up velocity, related to crystallization predicted, is a consequence of repeated polymer transition through crystallization temperature range. Melt stream crystallization, caused by fast oriented crystallization affected by high tensile stress is predicted in the model at very short section of the process line and is correlated with strong increase in tensile stress and reaching the take-up velocity level. The correlation of the calculated amorphous orientation just before the solidification point (Fig. 19) with experimental values of amorphous orientation factor for PET fibers investigated indicate that amorphous orientations of taken-up fibers is formed by tensile stress at solidification point. The comparison of experimentally determined amorphous orientation and crystallinity degree of the fibers tested with the model predictions (Fig. 17-19) shows that the oriented crystallization parameter A depends on the polymer temperature. In the investigated range of heating zone temperature between Tg and temperature of maximum crystallization rate parameter A should increase with increasing temperature.
Key words: spinning, polymer melt, zone heating, dynamic characteristics, model equations, bifurcation, poly(ethylene terephthalate), oriented crystallization, take-up velocity limitation, experimental results
A. Blim, L. Jarecki
Effects of zone heating on pet fibers structures and dynamics of melt spinning process. Part II. Mathematical model